Seasonality, temperature and pregnancy oral glucose tolerance test results in Australia.
Authors of this article are:
Shen EX, Moses RG, Oats JJN, Lowe J, McIntyre HD.
A summary of the article is shown below:
BACKGROUND: The oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) is currently the standard method for diagnosis of gestational diabetes (GDM). We conducted a post hoc analysis using the Australian Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) data to determine seasonal variations in OGTT results, the consequent prevalence of GDM, and association with select perinatal parameters.METHOD: Women enrolled in the Australian HAPO study sites (Brisbane and Newcastle) from 2001 to 2006 were included if OGTT results between 24 to 32 weeks gestation were available (n = 2120). Fasting plasma glucose, 1-h plasma glucose, 2-h plasma glucose, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, and umbilical cord C-peptide and glucose values were categorized by season and correlated to monthly temperature records from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology for Brisbane and Newcastle. GDM was defined post hoc using the IADPSG/WHO criteria.RESULTS: Small but significant (p < 0.01 on ANOVA) elevations in fasting glucose (+ 0.12 mM), HbA1c (+ 0.09%), and HOMA-IR (+ 0.88 units) were observed during the winter months. Conversely, higher 1-h (+ 0.19 mM) and 2-h (+ 0.33 mM) post-load glucose values (both p < 0.01) were observed during the summer months. The correlations between fasting glucose, 1-h glucose, 2-h glucose, and HbA1c with average monthly temperatures confirmed this trend, with positive Pearson's correlations between 1-h and 2-h glucose with increasing average monthly temperatures, and negative correlations with fasting glucose and HbA1c. Further, umbilical cord C-peptide and glucose displayed negative Pearson's correlation with average monthly temperature, aligned with trends seen in the fasting plasma glucose. Overall prevalence of GDM did not display significant seasonal variations due to the opposing trends seen in the fasting versus 1-h and 2-h post-load values.CONCLUSION: A significant winter increase was observed for fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, and HOMA-IR, which contrasted with changes in 1-h and 2-h post-load venous plasma glucose values. Interestingly, umbilical cord C-peptide and glucose displayed similar trends to that of the fasting plasma glucose. While overall prevalence of GDM did not vary significantly by seasons, this study illustrates that seasonality is indeed an additional factor when interpreting OGTT results for the diagnosis of GDM and provides new direction for future research into the seasonal adjustment of OGTT results.
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This article is a good source of information and a good way to become familiar with topics such as: Fetal outcomes;Gestational diabetes mellitus;HAPO;Oral glucose tolerance testing;Seasonal variability.
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