MicroRNA-214 contributes to regulation of necroptosis via targeting ATF4 in diabetes-associated periodontitis.
Authors of this article are:
Ou L, Sun T, Cheng Y, Huang L, Zhan X, Zhang P, Yang J, Zhang Y, Zhou Z.
A summary of the article is shown below:
Diabetes and periodontal diseases have a mutual promoting relationship that induces severe tissue damage and cell death. The potential roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) and the type of cell death involved in diabetes-associated periodontitis are obscure. The gingival tissues of patients were obtained and MC3T3-E1 cells were costimulated with high glucose and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Osseous morphometric analysis was evaluated with micro-CT, and histological characteristics were measured by hematoxylin/eosin and immunohistochemical staining. Cytokine secretion was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured using a DCFH-DA probe kit. Gene expression was measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), and protein expression was assessed by Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. The miR-214 level, receptor-interacting serine-threonine protein (RIP) 1, RIP3, and phospho-mixed lineage kinase domain-like (p-MLKL) protein expression were elevated in the inflamed gingival tissues of diabetes-associated periodontitis patients, with activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) expression showing the opposite effect. The high glucose (22 mM) could not induce significant increase of RIP1, RIP3, and p-MLKL; however, the high glucose and LPS (500-1000 ng/mL) cotreatment resulted in increase in the number of RIP1, RIP3, and p-MLKL in MC3T3-E1 cells. NAC (ROS inhibitor) inhibited RIP1, RIP3, and increased ATF4; however, necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) (RIP1 inhibitor) specifically inhibited the protein expression of RIP1 and RIP3 and had no influence on ATF4. The use of antagomir-214 suppressed the expression of miR-214, RIP1, RIP3, and p-MLKL, but increased ATF4 protein level in glucose and LPS-induced cells. ATF4 knockdown by ATF4 small interfering RNA offset the effect of antagomir-214. RIP1- and RIP3-dependent necroptosis was confirmed in the inflamed gingival tissues of diabetes-associated periodontitis patients and high glucose- and LPS- cotreated cells. It was suggested that miR-214-targeted ATF4 participated in the regulation of necroptosis in vivo and in vitro.© 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Check out the article’s website on Pubmed for more information:
This article is a good source of information and a good way to become familiar with topics such as: activating transcription factor 4; diabetes-associated periodontitis; microRNA-214; necroptosis.