Quantification of Opioids in Urine Using an Aptamer-Based Free-Solution Assay.
Authors of this article are:
Kammer MN, Kussrow A, Gandhi I, Drabek R, Batchelor RH, Jackson GW, Bornhop DJ.
A summary of the article is shown below:
The opioid epidemic continues in the United States. Many have been impacted by this epidemic, including neonates who exhibit Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS). Opioid diagnosis and NAS can be negatively impacted by limited testing options outside the hospital, due to poor assay performance, false-negatives, rapid drug clearance rates, and difficulty in obtaining enough specimen for testing. Here we report a small volume urine assay for oxycodone, hydrocodone, fentanyl, noroxycodone, norhydrocodone, and norfentanyl with excellent LODs and LOQs. The free-solution assay (FSA), coupled with high affinity DNA aptamer probes and a compensated interferometric reader (CIR), represents a potential solution for quantifying opioids rapidly, at high sensitivity, and noninvasively on small sample volumes. The mix-and-read test is 5- to 275-fold and 50- to 1250-fold more sensitive than LC-MS/MS and immunoassays, respectively. Using FSA, oxycodone, hydrocodone, fentanyl, and their urinary metabolites were quantified using 10 μL of urine at 28-81 pg/mL, with >95% specificity and excellent accuracy in ∼1 h. The assay sensitivity, small sample size requirement, and speed could enable opioid screening, particularly for neonates, and points to the potential for pharmacokinetic tracking.
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