Performance of immunohistochemistry as a useful tool for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Panama, Central America.

A new interesting article has been published in Parasitol Int. 2019 Aug;71:46-52. doi: 10.1016/j.parint.2019.03.007. Epub 2019 Mar 16. and titled:

Performance of immunohistochemistry as a useful tool for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Panama, Central America.

Authors of this article are:

Gonzalez K, Calzada JE, Díaz R, Paz H, García V, Miranda A, Tomokane T, Puga S, Saldaña A, Laurenti M.

A summary of the article is shown below:

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the most frequent parasitic zoonoses in Panama. Currently, conventional, molecular and histopathological tests are performed to diagnose CL. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) has proven to be a valuable tool to facilitate the diagnosis of leishmaniasis and to study the cellular immune response developed during the infection. Therefore, considering the absence of IHC in the diagnostic routine in Panama, the objective of this study is to demonstrate the usefulness of this test as a complementary diagnostic tool for improving the sensitivity of histopathology (HP) and helping to study the cellular immune response of patients. Samples from patients with suspected CL were analysed by intradermal reaction of Montenegro (IDRM), smears, culture, PCR (Viannia, Hsp-70), HP and IHC. According to the diagnostic criteria, 95.8% of patients were positive for Leishmania sp., that was characterized as Leishmania (V.) panamensis by PCR-HSP70/RFLP. From positive samples, Leishmania was detected by the tested diagnostic methods in the following degrees: 100% by IDRM, 60% by smears, 93.3% by culture, 100% by kDNA PCR, 78.3% by PCR Hsp-70, 50% by HP and 73.9% by IHC. Although IHC had a poor correlation (k = 0.191) with the diagnostic criteria, the sensitivities of both HP (76.1%) and smears (89.1%) were improved by combining them with IHC. IHC considerably improved the detection of the Leishmania parasites in the histopathological sections, supporting the need to implement this diagnostic tool in Panama. In addition, immunohistochemistry allows evaluation of the patient’s immune response and thus provides new guidelines for the treatment and control of CL in Panama.Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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This article is a good source of information and a good way to become familiar with topics such as: Adult;Aged;Antigens, Protozoan;Biopsy;DNA, Protozoan;Female;Histological Techniques;Humans;Immunity, Cellular;Immunohistochemistry;Leishmania;Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous;Male;Middle Aged;Panama;Polymerase Chain Reaction;Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length;Sensitivity and Specificity;Skin;Young Adult.

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