Amygdala rapid kindling impairs breathing in response to chemoreflex activation.
Authors of this article are:
Totola LT, Malheiros-Lima MR, Delfino-Pereira P, Vecchio FD, Souza FC, Takakura AC, Garcia-Cairasco N, Moreira TS.
A summary of the article is shown below:
Temporal lobe epilepsy is often accompanied by behavioral, electroencephalographic and autonomic abnormalities. Amygdala kindling has been used as an experimental model to study epileptogenesis. Although amygdala kindling has been extensively investigated in the context of its clinical relevance to the epilepsies, potential associated respiratory alterations are not well known. Here, our main objective was to better investigate the mechanisms involved in respiratory physiology impairment in the amygdala rapid kindling (ARK) model of epileptogenesis. Male Wistar rats with electrodes implanted into the amygdaloid complex were used. After recovery from surgery, the rats were subjected to electrical stimulation of basolateral amygdala for 2 consecutive days (10 stimuli/day). The ventilatory parameters were evaluated by whole body plethysmography. Thereafter, animals were also exposed to hypercapnia (7% CO2) for 3 h to evaluate fos protein expression in several nuclei involved in respiratory control. We observed a significant reduction in ventilation during the ictal phase elicited by ARK. We also found that 10 days after ARK, baseline ventilation as well as the hypercapnia ventilatory response (7% CO2) were reduced compared to control rats. The number of fos-immunoreactive neurons in the retrotrapezoid nucleus, raphe magnus and nucleus of the solitary tract were also reduced after ARK. Our results showed that ARK was able to impair breathing function, demonstrating a strong coupling between amygdala and the respiratory neurons in the brainstem, with potential impact in respiratory failures, frequently fatal, during or after epileptic seizures in chronic animal models and in patients.Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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This article is a good source of information and a good way to become familiar with topics such as: Amygdala rapid kindling; brainstem; breathing; hypercapnia.