The Furan Fatty Acid 9M5 Acts as a Partial Ligand to Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma and Enhances Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Preadipoc…
Authors of this article are:
Lauvai J, Becker AK, Lehnert K, Schumacher M, Hieronimus B, Vetter W, Graeve L.
A summary of the article is shown below:
A food that has been praised for its beneficial effects on overall health is fish, particularly its polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). However, it has recently been suggested that minor fatty acids such as furan fatty acids are needed in combination with DHA and EPA to exert these positive effects of fish and fish oils. Only recently have furan fatty acids become available in quantities that allow the investigation of their biofunctional properties. In this study, the uptake and effect of the furan fatty acid 9-(3-methyl-5-pentylfuran-2-yl)-nonanoic acid (9M5) as a sole component and in combination with DHA and EPA on adipogenesis were analyzed using the 3T3-L1 cell model. 9M5 is taken up and metabolized into 7M5, 5M5, and 3M5 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes during a 24-h period as shown with gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Furthermore, 9M5 significantly increased lipid accumulation during the differentiation process of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes. In addition, the combinations of DHA + 9M5 and EPA + DHA + 9M5 also exerted a significant increase compared to control adipocytes. 3T3-L1 cells incubated with 9M5 resulted in an increased protein expression of PPARγ, C/EBPα, FABP4, and adiponectin, although not to the extent that DHA as a sole component or DHA + 9M5 did. Earlier studies have shown that DHA is a natural ligand for PPARγ, thus being a potential alternative to the antidiabetic thiazolidinediones. We show that 9M5 activates a PPARγ-responsive reporter gene and could therefore be a natural ligand for PPARγ.© 2019 AOCS.
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This article is a good source of information and a good way to become familiar with topics such as: Adipocytes; Adipogenesis; Furan fatty acids; Obesity; PPARγ.