Probucol promotes high glucose-induced proliferation and inhibits apoptosis by reducing reactive oxygen species generation in Müller cells.
Authors of this article are:
Zhou X, Ai S, Chen Z, Li C.
A summary of the article is shown below:
PURPOSE: To explore the protective effect of probucol on human retinal Müller cells cultured in high glucose.METHODS: Primary Müller cells from human retinas were cultured in complete DMEM. Third-generation Müller cells were identified using glutamine synthetase (GS) antibody and randomly divided into three groups: normoglycemia (NG, 5.5 mmol/L); hyperglycemia (HG, 30 mmol/L); and hyperglycemia (30 mmol/L) with probucol (10 μmol/L; HGPB). After a 24-h intervention, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured with a CCK-8 kit, flow cytometry, and DCFH-DA probe, respectively. Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) protein expression were detected by immunofluorescence staining.RESULTS: For NG, HG, and HGPB, optical density (OD) values for cell proliferation were 0.98 ± 0.23, 0.58 ± 0.11, and 0.73 ± 0.11; apoptotic rates were 2.79 ± 0.52%, 7.70 ± 0.44%, and 4.00 ± 0.95%; and intracellular ROS were 20.89 ± 5.14, 55.17 ± 14.07, and 26.28 ± 4.73, respectively. Compared to NG, OD was markedly decreased (P < 0.01), apoptosis was increased (P < 0.001), and intracellular ROS level was significantly higher than in HG (P < 0.01). Compared to HG, OD was markedly increased (P < 0.01), apoptosis was meaningfully decreased (P < 0.01), and intracellular ROS level was significantly lower than in HGPB (P < 0.01). GS, Keap1, Nrf2, and GCLC had positive expression.CONCLUSIONS: Probucol could inhibit intracellular ROS generation, promote proliferation, and decrease apoptosis of human retinal Müller cells cultured in high glucose. This might also be associated with Keap1/Nrf2/ARE oxidative stress signaling pathway activation.
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This article is a good source of information and a good way to become familiar with topics such as: Apoptosis; Cell proliferation; Diabetic retinopathy; Probucol; Reactive oxygen species.