Can magnetic resonance imaging differentiate among transurethral bulking agent, urethral diverticulum, and periurethral cyst?

A new interesting article has been published in Abdom Radiol (NY). 2019 Aug;44(8):2852-2863. doi: 10.1007/s00261-019-02052-w. and titled:

Can magnetic resonance imaging differentiate among transurethral bulking agent, urethral diverticulum, and periurethral cyst?

Authors of this article are:

Chulroek T, Wangcharoenrung D, Cattapan K, Kordbacheh H, Mitchell AJ, Harisinghani MG, De EJB.

A summary of the article is shown below:

PURPOSE: To evaluate magnetic resonance imaging findings that differentiate among periurethral bulking agents (primarily collagen), urethral diverticulum, and periurethral cyst.METHODS: We searched our radiologic database retrospectively from 2001 to 2017 for periurethral cystic lesions, identifying a total of 50 patients with 68 lesions. Final diagnoses in 68 lesions were bulking agents (27), urethral diverticula (29), and periurethral cysts (12). Two abdominal radiologists, blinded to clinical history, independently evaluated T1, T2, and post-contrast images. The readers assessed number, morphological features, location, connection to urethra and mass effect, signal intensity, and enhancement for each lesion. Fisher exact test and logistic regression analysis were performed for each univariate significant feature. The operative and pathologic reports were the reference standard.RESULTS: Magnetic resonance imaging features found more often in bulking agents versus urethral diverticulum were multiple lesions (P = 0.011), upper or upper-mid-urethral location (P ≤ 0.0001), lack of internal fluid/fluid level (P = 0.002), no urethral connection (P = 0.005), T1 isointensity, and T2 mild hyperintensity compared to muscles but lower T2 signal than urine (P < 0.0001). Most cases of urethral diverticula and periurethral cysts were detected at mid- and lower urethra. Urethral diverticula were larger than bulking agents and periurethral cysts (P = 0.005 and P = 0.023) (mean diameter = 24, 16, 15 mm, respectively). Most bulking agents (93%) and urethral diverticula (90%) showed mass effect on urethra, while periurethral cysts (75%) did not (P < 0.0001).CONCLUSION: Signal intensity and lesion characterization on magnetic resonance imaging can significantly differentiate bulking agent from urethral diverticulum and periurethral cyst. Radiologists should consider differential diagnosis of a bulking agent, especially when distinguishing characteristics described here are present to prevent incorrect diagnosis and ultimately unnecessary surgical intervention.
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This article is a good source of information and a good way to become familiar with topics such as: Bulking agent;Collagen;MRI;Periurethral cyst;Urethral diverticulum;Urethral mass.

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