Oxidized LDL, homocysteine, homocysteine thiolactone and advanced glycation end products act as pro-oxidant metabolites inducing cytokine release, …
Authors of this article are:
AnandBabu K, Sen P, Angayarkanni N.
A summary of the article is shown below:
Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is one of the major vision-threatening diseases of the eye. Oxidative stress is one of the key factors in the onset and progression of AMD. In this study, metabolites associated with AMD pathology more so at the systemic level namely, oxidized LDL (oxLDL), homocysteine (Hcy), homocysteine thiolactone (HCTL), advanced glycation end product (AGE) were evaluated for their pro-oxidant nature in a localized ocular environment based on in vitro studies in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19 cells). Human ARPE-19 cells were treated with pro-oxidants 50 μg/mL oxLDL, 500 μM Hcy, 500 nM HCTL, 100 μg/mL AGE, 200 μM H2O2 and 200 μM H2O2 with and without pre-treatment of 5 mM N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). The cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted from ARPE-19 cells exposed to pro-oxidants were estimated by ELISA. In vitro angiogenesis assay was performed with conditioned media of the pro-oxidant treated ARPE-19 cells in Geltrex-Matrigel coated 96-well plate. The human acute monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) was differentiated into macrophages and its migration in response to conditioned media of ARPE-19 cells insulted with the pro-oxidants was studied by transwell migration assay. Western blot was performed to detect the protein expression of Bax, Bcl-2 and NF-κB to assess apoptotic changes. The compounds involved in the study showed a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in ARPE-19 cells (oxLDL; Hcy; AGE: p < 0.001 and HCTL: p < 0.05). NAC pre-treatment significantly lowered the oxidative stress brought about by pro-oxidants as seen by lowered ROS and MDA levels in the cells. Treatment with pro-oxidants significantly increased the secretion of IL-6 (oxLDL: p < 0.05; Hcy, HCTL and AGE: p < 0.01) and IL-8 cytokines (oxLDL: p < 0.05; HCTL: p <. 001 and AGE: p < 0.01) in ARPE-19 cells. Serum samples of AMD patients (n = 23) revealed significantly higher IL-6 and IL-8 levels compared to control subjects (n = 23) (IL6: p < 0.01 and IL8: p < 0.05). The pro-oxidants also promoted VEGF secretion by ARPE-19 cells compared to untreated control (oxLDL: p < 0.001; Hcy: p < 0.01; HCTL and AGE: p < 0.05). In vitro angiogenesis assay showed that the conditioned media significantly increased the tube formation in RF/6A endothelial cells. Transwell migration assay revealed significant infiltration of macrophages in response to pro-oxidants. We further demonstrated that the pro-oxidants increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and increased the NF-κB activation resulting in pro-apoptotic changes in ARPE-19 cells. Thus, oxLDL, Hcy, HCTL and AGE act as pro-oxidant metabolites in RPE that promote AMD through oxidative stress, inflammation, chemotaxis and neovascularization.
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